There are four sentence types in English: Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative and Exclamatory.
英語有四種句子類型:陳述句、祈使句、疑問句和感嘆句。

Declarative: Tom'll come to the meeting tomorrow.
陳述句:湯姆明天來開會。

Imperative: Turn to page 232 in your science book.
祈使句:翻到你的科學書第232頁。

Interrogative: Where do you live?
疑問句:你住在哪里?

Exclamatory: That's awesome!
感嘆句:太棒了!

Declarative
陳述句

A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentence ends with a period (.).
陳述句陳述事實、安排或觀點的陳述句。陳述句可以是肯定句,也可以是否定句。陳述句以句號(.)結尾。

I'll meet you at the train station./The sun rises in the East./He doesn't get up early.
我在火車站等你。/太陽從東方升起。/他起得不早。

Imperative
祈使句

The imperative form instructs (or sometimes requests). The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period (.) or an exclamation point (!).
命令式形式指示(或有時請求)。祈使句不帶主語,因為“你”是隱含主語。命令式形式以句點(.)或感嘆號(!)結尾。

Open the door./Finish your homework/Pick up that mess.
開門。/做完作業/收拾殘局。

Interrogative
疑問句

The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form, the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb (i.e., Are you coming ....?). The interrogative form ends with a question mark (?).
疑問句用于問一個問題。在疑問句中,助動詞先于主語,主語后接主語(即,你要來嗎…?)。疑問句以問號(?)結尾。

How long have you lived in France?/When does the bus leave?/Do you enjoy listening to classical music?
你在法國住了多久?/公共汽車什么時候開?/你喜歡聽古典音樂嗎?

Exclamatory
感嘆句

The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement (either declarative or imperative) with an exclamation point (!).
感嘆詞形式強調帶有感嘆號(!)的語句(聲明性或命令性)。

Hurry up!/That sounds fantastic!/I can't believe you said that!
快點!/聽起來棒極了!/真不敢相信你這么說!

Sentence Structures
句子結構

Writing in English begins with the sentence. Sentences are then combined into paragraphs. Finally, paragraphs are used to write longer structures such as essays, business reports, etc. The first sentence structure is the most common:
英語寫作以句子開頭。句子然后合并成段落。最后,段落用于書寫較長的結構,如論文、商業報告等。第一句結構最常見:

Simple Sentences
簡單句

Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
簡單的句子不包含連詞(即,and,but,or等)。

Frank ate his dinner quickly./Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday./Are you coming to the party?
弗蘭克吃得很快。/彼得和休上星期六參觀了博物館。/你要來參加聚會嗎?

Compound Sentences
復合句

Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.). Practice writing compound sentences with this compound sentence writing exercise.
復合句包含兩個由連詞連接的語句(即and,but,or等)。用這個復句寫作練習練習寫復句。

I wanted to come, but it was late./The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus./I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.
我想來,但晚了。/公司今年過得很好,所以他們給每個人發了獎金。/我去購物,我妻子去上課。

Complex Sentences
復合句

Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.).
復句包含一個從屬從句和至少一個獨立從句。這兩個從句之間有一個從屬關系(即,誰,盡管,如果,自從,等等)。

My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang./That's the man who bought our house/Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.
我女兒上課遲到了,鈴響后不久就到了。/那是買我們房子的人。/雖然很難,但這個班以優異的成績通過了考試。

Compound/Complex Sentences
復合句

Compound/complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.)
復合句/復合句至少包含一個從句和多個獨立從句。這些從句由連詞(即but,so,and,etc)和從屬詞(即who,because,while,etc)連接起來

John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation./Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered./The report which Tom compiled was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.
上個月短暫訪問過的約翰得獎了,他休了個小假。/杰克忘了他朋友的生日,所以當他終于記起時給他寄了一張卡片。/湯姆編寫的報告被提交給董事會,但由于太復雜而被否決了。

?