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滬江英語 > 英語時態 > 過去完成時

過去完成時表示過去某一時刻或某一動作之前已完成的動作或狀態(亦可以說是“過去的過去”)。過去完成時由had加過去分詞構成。

1.1 過去完成時的構成
肯定句:主語 + had + 過去分詞...
否定句:主語 + had + not + 過去分詞...
疑問句:Had + 主語 + 過去分詞...?
疑問代詞/疑問副詞 + had + 主語 + 過去分詞...?

過去完成時

1.2 過去完成時的肯定句
句型:主語 + had + 過去分詞...
過去完成時的肯定句由助動詞had加過去分詞構成:

He had already been to New York earlier in the week.本周早些時候他去過紐約。
Jane had just left when you rang.你打電話時簡剛走。

1.3 過去完成時的否定句
句型:主語 + had + not + 過去分詞...
過去完成時的否定句是在助動詞had后加not,之后是過去分詞:

At that time we hadn't met her.那時我們還沒有見到她。
The country had not yet recovered from the effects of the war.這個國家尚未從戰爭的影響下復原。


1.4 過去完成時的疑問句
一般疑問句句型:Had + 主語 + 過去分詞...?
回答方式:Yes,主語 + had.
No,主語 + had + not.
過去完成時的疑問句是將助動詞had置于主語之前(大寫had的第一個字母),在句尾加問號;這種語序是倒裝語序:

I visited the museum yesterday.—Had you visited it before? —Yes,I had./No,I hadn't.昨天我參觀了這個博物館。——你以前參觀過這個博物館嗎? ——是,我去過。/沒有,我以前沒有去過。

1.5 過去完成時的用法
1.表示較早的過去

表示較早的過去,即某一時刻之前已完成的動作或狀態:
In 1980,I'd never been to Paris.(=I never went there before1980.)1980年之前我從未去過巴黎。
After we had landed,the plane was searched thoroughly.我們降落后,飛機被徹底搜查了一遍。
When she heard that her father had died in the accident,she burst out crying.當她聽說她父親在那次事故中喪生時便大哭起來。
2.用于間接引語
過去完成時的作用有時完全相當于現在完成時的過去形式,在間接引語中多有這種情況:
Helen said(that)she had moved to another flat.海倫說她已搬 到另一套房間去了。
He said he had been there before.他說他曾經去過那里。
3.用于賓語從句
過去完成時表示一個過去的動作先于另一個過去動作的用法,多見于賓語從句。一般說來,主句中用了know(知道),realize(意識到),think(認為),suppose(猜想),guess(推測),find(找到),discover(發現),decide(決定),remember(想起),forget(忘記)等動詞的一般過去時,如果賓語從句中的動作先于主句的動作,通常用過去完成時:
We realized we had lost our way.我們意識到我們迷路了。
I didn't think to ask her if she had passed her examination.我沒有想問她是否考試及格了。
4.強調過去動作的完成
I began collecting stamps in February and by November I had col-lected more than 2000.我從2月份開始集郵,到11月已收集到2000多枚。
By six o'clock they had worked for8hours.到6點鐘他們已經工作了8小時了。(可能還沒結束)
5.用于虛擬語氣
過去完成時的這一用法,常見于以if only等引導的感嘆句:
If only we had listened to their advice! 我們要是聽了他們的意見就好了!
If only you had worked with greater care! 你要是更仔細一些該多好!
Would that we had seen her before she died.要是在她去世之前我們能見她一面該有多好。
過去完成時的這一用法還見于構成虛擬語氣的條件從句和I wish...(我希望……),I’d rather...(我寧愿……)后的that-從句:
I'd rather you hadn't been present.我寧愿你當時不在場。
If I had asked for directions,I wouldn't have gotten lost.如果我問一下路,就不會迷失方向了。

6.表示過去未曾實現的希望、打算和意圖
過去完成時表示過去未曾實現的希望、打算或意圖,只適用于下列動詞:expect(期待),hope(希望),intend(打算),mean(打算),suppose(料想),think(認為),want(想要)等:
We had hoped that you would be able to visit us.我們原本希望你會來拜訪我們。
I had meant to take a good holiday this year,but I was not able to leave.我本打算今年好好去度假,只是脫不開身。
7.與過去完成時連用的時間狀語
與過去完成時連用的時間狀語可以是already(已經),yet(仍然),still(還),just(剛剛),hardly...when(剛……就),scarcely...before(剛……就),ever(曾經),never(從來沒有)等,也可以是by(不遲于),before(在……之前),until(直到),as soon as(一……就)等引導的詞組或從句:
When I came back at midnight she still hadn't finished.我半夜回來時,她還沒有做完。
The game had hardly/scarcely/barely begun when it started raining.比賽剛剛開始就下起雨來。
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過去完成時
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